In earlier times, namely in the 14th century precisely in 1293, in Indonesia emerged an empire. a kingdom that would later become the largest empire in the Nusantara, this is the Majapahit kingdom. central government of this kingdom are in east Java, Indonesia. Trowulan is the name of the capital of this kingdom.
Majapahit was founded by Raden Wijaya, Raden wijaya was formerly the son of the King Kartanegara, King of the Singosari Kingdom who died because of an attack made by the Kingdom of Kadiri. Raden wijaya and his followers were later cleared and made the forest called the Tarik forest into a village called Trowulan, and in this village of Majapahit was established.
Establishment of the kingdom of Majapahit was due Raden wijaya ingenuity and a little help from the Kublai Khan’s soldiers who came from china / mongolian. in fact, Kublai Khan’s soldiers came to Java is to destroy the kingdom of Singosari, but they did not know that Singosari been destroyed by the attack of the Kingdom of kediri. Raden wijaya then worked with Kublai Khan to invade the kingdom of Kadiri, Raden Wijaya goal is to avenge the death-in-law.
because of superior numbers of troops, Raden Wijaya who cooperate with the forces of Kublai Khan, destroying Kediri. Jayakatwang king was killed, revenge Raden Wijaya settled. next, because he wanted the soldiers of Kublai Khan went from the Java island, Raden Wijaya then turned suddenly launched an attack to Kublai Khan's soldiers. warrior of Kublai Khan finally driven away from Java.
majapahit life, conflict, and triumph.
After Raden wijaya officially appointed as the King, on the 10th of november 1293 and got its official name is Katarajasa jawardhana, conflicts began to emerge. The first revolt is the Ranggalawe revolt , which is actually a confidant of King. besides Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi also did the revolt. the conspiracy behind this rebellion is Halayuda, a royal duke. The aim is for sure, that is to overthrow the King and he got the highest authority in the government. but all efforts were made Halayuda nothing works. then Halayuda even arrested, as was found guilty and sentenced to death.
After Raden Wijaya died in 1309, handed the crown to his son, Jayanegara. However, a physician named Tanca kill him. government then given to her stepmother, Gayati rajapatni. however, Gayati not want to hold the government, and prefer to become nuns. Gayati pointing daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi to become queen and government control.
In 1336, Gadjah Mada , was appointed governor by Tribhuwana. Gadjah Mada future will be a great governor, and brought into the kingdom of Majapahit in the Nusantara's largest and feared. at the time of inauguration, Gadjah Mada vows. a very famous oath was sworn palapa. namely, the oath to widen the Majapahit territory, and made the kingdom of Majapahit as the largest.
After Tribhuwana, the next King of Majapahit was Hayam Wuruk (son of Tribhuwana). Hayam Wuruk ruled between the years 1350-1389. during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit gain peak. magnitude of the Majapahit power is controlled throughout the Nusantara, that now is Sumatara, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa tenggara island, Maluku, Papua, Singapore, and parts of the Philippines. Majapahit also established a relationship with another empire, just as Campa, Siam, Burma, Vietnam, China, and Cambodia.
Declining prestige of Gadjah Mada
Hayam Wuruk want to marry Citaresmi Pitaloka, princess of Sunda. this is due to forge alliances and diplomacy. then the king's entourage went to accompany his daughter to marry Hayam Wuruk. but Gadjah Mada had another thought, he thinks that this is an opportunity to make a submission to Sunda kingdom of Majapahit. then under the command of Gadjah Mada, Majapahit soldiers attacked the king's entourage Sunda. This battle occurred in the field Bubat. so that the event is called, Bubat war. almost all members of the entourage brutally murdered. Citaresmi are disappointed, then decided to commit suicide. because of this cruel event dimmed the prestige of Gadjah Mada.
The introduction of Islam in Java and the destruction of Majapahit.
Gadjah Mada died in 1377. while Hayam Wuruk died in 1389. Majapahit decline due to conflict struggle for the throne. conflict occurs because the struggle between Prince Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. Wikramawardhana was the husband of the princess crown, Kusumawardhani who actually still have blood ties. while Wirabhumi was the son of a concubine, who also has the right to the throne. This civil war called the war Paregreg. This war eventually won by Wikramawardhana.
After Wikramawardhana, subsequent kings of Majapahit was the queen suhita (reigned between the years 1426 to 1447), then Kertawijaya in the year 1447 until 1451, Bhre pamotan (reigned in Kahuripan), after Bhre pamotan die, as long as 3 years of Majapahit had no leader. in 1456, then Majapahit had a King again. Girishawardhana, son of kertawijaya. then he died in 1466. forwarded by Singhawikramawardhana throne. The next revolt occurred again in Majapahit. was conducted by the prince kertabhumi, then Kertabhumi appointed himself as the King of Majapahit. when Singhawikramawardhana became king, he moved to the inland empire center Daha (the former royal capital of Karachi). son of Singhawikramawardhana, Ranawijaya then beat kertabhumi and in control of Majapahit.
Previously between the period 1405 - 1433, sea expeditions conducted by the Ming Dynasty, the expedition led by Admiral Ceng ho. this is the first time Islam came to the island of Java. when Islam entered the Javanese, Majapahit influence in the Nusantara began to weaken. while the influence of Islam grew stronger. majapahit colonies in the Nusantara one by one began to break away from the power of Majapahit. Islamic empires began to appear in the Nusantara. one of which is the Sultanate of Demak, in Java. after the Majapahit empire defeated Demak, occurs the transference of power from the Hindu ruler to Adipati Unus. Demak ruler of the empire. later became the Islamic kingdom of Majapahit.